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Alnis Svelpis

   The society of the 18th century is laced by conflicting tendencies – strictly rational and marked irrational, by fighting and defending serfdom, by scientists and alchemists and clairvoyants. These contradictory features are expressed also in the religious and ethical movement, which formed in the 20th century and is known as Free Masonry.


 

Ineta Lipša. Vakara Ziņas April 2, 2002.

   During the First Republic (1918-1940) two Masonic Lodges were active in Latvia – “Jāņuguns” (“John’s Bonfire”) in Riga and “Enkurs” (“”) in Liepāja. The latest was basically made of German merchants and sailors. When German troops occupied Kurzeme, the Western part of Latvia, in the First World War, they established the so called “field lodges” for soldiers and officers – Masons. One of the field lodges later became the backbone of the “Enkurs” Lodge. “Jāņuguns”, by the way, officially was registered with the state registry as a society, not a Freemasons Lodge, because the Latvian legislation of the time nearly forbade establishment of associations of closed type (moreover if it were a branch of an international organization).


 

Idea of Daylight Saving Time

The idea of daylight saving was first conceived by Benjamin Franklin (portrait at left) during his sojourn as an American delegate in Paris in 1784, in an essay, "An Economical Project.".


 
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